An Overview of the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Fabrication Process


Back in 1936, the earliest printed circuit board (PCB) is made by Paul Eisle. Nevertheless, it wasn’t until the 1950s when the U.S. Defense industry began integrating PCBs within their bomb detonator approaches that printed circuit boards found wide use. PCBs are now utilised in the majority of fabricated products like, automobiles, mobile phones, personal computers, among others.

A Overview of this PCB Fabrication Processes

PCBs are originally manufactured by PCB prototype means of two types of applications.

Once the PCB prototype was fashioned, the initial step in the fabrication process is to choose the material of the printed circuit board.

After the material was selected, the initial process is to apply a coat of copper to the whole board. The circuit layout is then going to be printed on the plank by a photosensitive procedure. Then, a photo engraving process will be used so that all of the aluminum that is not part of the circuit design is going to be etched out or removed from the board. The subsequent copper creates the traces or tracks of this PCB circuit. To join with the circuit hints, two processes are used. An mechanical milling procedure may utilize CNC machines to eliminate the unnecessary aluminum from the plank. Then, an etch-resistant, silk-screen, printing process is implemented to cover the regions where traces must exist.

Only at that point from the PCB fabrication process, the PCB board comprises copper traces without any circuit components. To mount the components, holes must be drilled at the areas where the electric and electronic equipment parts are set on the plank. The holes are drilled using either lasers or a distinctive kind of drill bit made of Tungsten Carbide. Once the holes have been drilled, then hollow rivets are added into them or they’re coated by an electroplating process, which creates the electrical connection between the layers of their board. A masking cloth is subsequently implemented to coat the entire PCB with the exclusion of the pads and also the holes. There are many types of masking material such as, lead solder, lead free solder, OSP (Entek), deep/hard golden (electrolytic nickel gold), immersion gold (electroless nickel stone – ENIG), wire bondable gold (99.99% pure gold), immersion silver, flash gold, immersion tin (white tin), carbon peroxide, along with SN 100CL, an alloy of tin, aluminum nickel. The final step in the PCB manufacturing procedure will be to screen printing the board therefore labels and the legend appear at their proper locations.

Testing the Standard of the PCB Board

Before placing the electrical and electrical components onto the PCB, the board should be tested to verify its functionality. Generally, there are two types of malfunctions that can cause a faulty PCB: a short or an open. A”short” is a connection between a few circuit points which will not exist. An”open” is just a spot where an association should exist but will not. These faults must be fixed before the PCB is assembled. Unfortunately, a few PCB manufacturers don’t examine their boards until they are shipped, which can lead to issues at the consumer’s location. So, quality testing is a critical procedure of the PCB fabrication process. Testing ensures the PCB boards are in proper working condition before component positioning.